The establishment of a forest in areas where the preceding vegetation or land use was not forest.
- Age Class
The age range of tree crops divided for classification or use. Also pertains to the trees included in such an interval
A biofuel is a renewable fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of non-renewable fossil fuels
Biomass is organic matter derived from living, or recently living organisms. Biomass can be used as a source of energy and it most often refers to plants or plant-based materials that are not used for food or feed, and are specifically called lignocellulosic biomass
The total collection of organisms present within a geographic region or within a time period.
- Carbon dioxide (CO2)
A compound of carbon and oxygen formed when carbon is burned. Carbon dioxide is one of the main greenhouse gases (GHG).
- Carbon neutral
This means achieving a zero net release of carbon. This is usually achieved by calculating your total carbon emissions, reducing them where possible and balancing your remaining emissions with the purchase of carbon offsets.
- Carbon offset
The act of counterbalancing (‘offsetting’) greenhouse gas emissions produced by undertaking emission reduction projects. Common examples include the use of renewable energy.
- Carbon sequestration
The uptake and storage of carbon. Trees and plants, for example, absorb carbon dioxide (CO2), release the oxygen and store the carbon. . Carbon is naturally sequestered by trees through a process called photosynthesis.
- Carbon sink
A carbon sink is a natural or manmade reservoir that accumulates and stores some carbon containing chemical compound for an indefinite period. The main natural sinks are: absorption of carbon dioxide by the oceans and photosynthesis by plants and algae.
- Chain of custody
CoC certification provides documentation regarding the production of certified forest products. Chain-of-custody certifies the movement of materials from the forest to the end-user, including all successive operations of timber harvesting, processing, manufacturing and distribution of forest products
- Combined Heat and Power (CHP)
Combined heat and power (CHP) refers to power plants which are designed to produce both heat and electricity.
Continuous Cover Forestry is an approach to the sustainable management of forests whereby forest stands are maintained in a permanently irregular structure, which is created and sustained through the selection and harvesting of individual trees. CCF does not equate specifically to any one particular silvicultural system, but is typified by selection systems.
The 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, COP 21 or CMP 11 was held in Paris, France, from 30 November to 12 December 2015. It was the 21st yearly session of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the 11th session of the Conference of the Parties (CMP) to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol.
- Cubic metre (cubic metres)
The form of timber measurement commonly used in Ireland. It is used to calculate the volume of both roundwood and of forest products.
- DBH (Diameter Breast Height)
Standard measure of a tree’s diameter, usually taken at 4 ½ feet above the ground.
Energy Supply Contract; a long-term energy supply contract under which an energy provider covers design, fuel supply, equipment supply, finance, installation, operation and maintenance, and the client is invoiced for metered energy use on a monthly basis at a pre-agreed index-linked price
- Even-Aged Management
A stand in which the age difference between the oldest and youngest trees is minimal. Even-aged stands are perpetuated by cutting all the trees within a relatively short time period.
- Fossil Fuel
Fuel formed by natural processes over millennia such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis. Fossil fuels contain high percentages of carbon and include petroleum, coal, and natural gas and are non-renewable.
- Forest certification
A procedure whereby an independent third party inspects forest management and utilisation practices to assess compliance with a set of ecological, economic and social standards for sustainable forestry
- Greenhouse Gases (GHG)
Gases in an atmosphere that absorb and emit radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the greenhouse effect. The main greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere are water vapour (H2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and Ozone (O3).
A general term denoting broadleaf and deciduous trees.
A unit of land area equal to 10,000 square metres.
- Kyoto Protocol
The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding targets for 37 industrialised countries and for the European community to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This amounts to an average reduction of 5% against 1990 levels over the five year period of the Kyoto Protocol (2008-2012).
Medium Density Fibreboard is an engineered wood product using separated wood fibres combined with a resin binder, and forming panels by applying high temperature and pressure. MDF It is stronger and much denser than particle board
Oriented Strand Board is a panel-type wood product made from narrow strands of wood oriented in alternating layers lengthwise and crosswise and bonded together with resin.
A manmade forest or tree crop established by planting saplings or seedlings
Wood or woody biomass suitable for use in paper manufacturing or as biofuel
The period of years required to establish and grow a timber crop to a specified condition of maturity, when it may be harvested and a new tree crop started.
A log large enough to be sawn economically in a sawmill. Salwlogs are usually at least 8 inches in diameter at the small end.
- Sawn timber
Trees from which sawlogs can be produced
The art and science of producing and tending a forest: the theory and practice of controlling forest establishment, composition, growth, and quality of forests to achieve the objectives of forest management.
Any tree in the gymnosperm group, including pines, hemlocks, larches, spruces, firs and junipers. Softwoods often are called conifers although some, such as junipers, do not produce cones.
An aggregation of trees occupying a specific area and uniform enough in composition (species), age and arrangement to be distinguishable from the forest on adjoining areas and considered a homogenous unit for management purposes
The value of standing trees in a forest
- Sustainable Forestry
A sylvicultural programme adhering to preset regulations to ensure that a forest is being sustainably and responsibly managed
A partial cut in an immature forest of overstocked tree stands used to increase the remaining stand’s value by growth and value by concentrating on individual trees remaining with the best potential to reach clearfell.
- Tonne of Oil Equivalent (toe)
A conventional standardised unit of energy which is defined on the basis of a tonne of oil having a net calorific value of 41,686 kJ / kg.
- Tree farm
A privately owned forest managed on a multiple use basis with timber production as an important management goal
- Uneven-Aged Management
Three or more age classes of trees represented
Thin sheets of wood of uniform thickness made by peeling, sawing or slicing.
- Wood Supply Agreement
An agreement between a landowner and a mill operator that designates how much wood, and of what quality, that the landowner agrees to sell to the mill operator, at what price and over what time period.
- Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted as gases from certain solids or liquids. VOCs include a variety of chemicals, some of which may have short and long-term adverse health effects.
A biological community dominated by trees.
- Yield Class
This is defined as the potential growth rate or yield of a forest, expressed as cubic meter per hectare per year
Veon’s Irish Forestry Quick Guide
ACRES TO HECTARES and HECTARES TO ACRES –